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Table 3 Antibiotic resistance and association with antibiotic use for E. coli

From: Intra-hospital differences in antibiotic use correlate with antimicrobial resistance rate in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae: a retrospective observational study

  Resistance Association with antibiotic use
No. of tests/strata Proportion resistant (95% CI) Odds ratio (95% CI) p-value
Amoxicillin/Ampicillin 2330 / 139 62 (55–69) 1.08 (0.84–1.40) 0.53
Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid 2330 / 139 39 (35–44) 1.07 (1.02–1.12) 0.004
Ceftriaxone 1085 / 119 18 (13–24) 1.10 (0.68–1.76) 0.71
Cefepime 1083 / 119 8 (6–12) 1.06 (0.90–1.25) 0.49
Piperacillin-tazobactam 1085 / 119 17 (13–21) 2.11 (1.45–3.07) < 0.001
Quinolones 2330 / 139 20 (17–23) 1.52 (1.25–1.86) < 0.001
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 2329 / 139 32 (27–37) 1.59 (1.19–2.13) 0.002
Gentamicin 1085 / 119 18 (14–22) 1.30 (0.45–3.71) 0.63
Combined 13,657 / 1032 24 (15–36) 1.09 (1.04–1.14) < 0.001
  1. Results from logistic mixed models for antibiotic resistance in relation to consumption. Odds ratios represent the change in the odds for resistance per increase in antibiotic use by 5 DDD/100 bed-days. Strata refer to year/department combinations
  2. CI confidence interval
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