Laxminarayan R, Duse A, Wattal C, Zaidi AKM, Wertheim HFL, Sumpradit N, et al. Antibiotic resistance—the need for global solutions. Lancet Infect Dis. 2013;13(12):1057–98.
Barlam TF, Cosgrove SE, Abbo LM, MacDougall C, Schuetz AN, Septimus EJ, et al. Implementing an antibiotic stewardship program: guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. Clin Infect Dis. 2016;62(10):e51–77.
van den Bosch CM, Geerlings SE, Natsch S, Prins JM, Hulscher ME. Quality indicators to measure appropriate antibiotic use in hospitalized adults. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;60(2):281–91.
Gerber JS. Improving outpatient antibiotic prescribing: another nudge in the right direction. JAMA. 2016;315(6):558–9.
De Luca M, Dona D, Montagnani C, Lo Vecchio A, Romanengo M, Tagliabue C, et al. Antibiotic Prescriptions and Prophylaxis in Italian Children. Is It Time to Change? Data from the ARPEC Project. PLoS One. 2016;11(5):e0154662.
Hicks LA, Bartoces MG, Roberts RM, Suda KJ, Hunkler RJ, Taylor TH Jr, et al. US outpatient antibiotic prescribing variation according to geography, patient population, and provider specialty in 2011. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;60(9):1308–16.
Fleming-Dutra KE, Hersh AL, Shapiro DJ, Bartoces M, Enns EA, File TM Jr, et al. Prevalence of inappropriate antibiotic prescriptions among US ambulatory care visits, 2010-2011. JAMA. 2016;315(17):1864–73.
Havers FP, Hicks LA, Chung JR, Gaglani M, Murthy K, Zimmerman RK, et al. Outpatient Antibiotic Prescribing for Acute Respiratory Infections During Influenza Seasons. JAMA Netw Open. 2018;1(2):e180243.
Shively NR, Buehrle DJ, Clancy CJ, Decker BK. Prevalence of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing in primary care clinics within a veterans affairs health care system. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2018;62(8):e00337–18.
Frost HM, Knepper BC, Shihadeh KC, Jenkins TC. A novel approach to evaluate antibiotic utilization across the spectrum of inpatient and ambulatory care and implications for prioritization of antibiotic stewardship efforts. Clin Infect Dis. 2019: ciz466, https://0-doi-org.brum.beds.ac.uk/10.1093/cid/ciz466.
Wolf J. Antibiotic resistance threatens the efficacy of prophylaxis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2015;15(12):1368–9.
de Greeff SC MJ. NethMap 2018: Consumption of antimicrobial agents and antimicrobial resistance among medically important bacteria in the Netherlands / MARAN 2018: Monitoring of Antimicrobial Resistance and Antibiotic Usage in Animals in the Netherlands in 2017. RIVM report 2018–0046.
Goossens H, Ferech M, Vander Stichele R, Elseviers M. Outpatient antibiotic use in Europe and association with resistance: a cross-national database study. Lancet. 2005;365(9459):579–87.
Adriaenssens N, Coenen S, Muller A, Vankerckhoven V, Goossens H, Group EP. European surveillance of antimicrobial consumption (ESAC): outpatient systemic antimycotic and antifungal use in Europe. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2010;65(4):769–74.
Zarb P, Goossens H. European surveillance of antimicrobial consumption (ESAC): value of a point-prevalence survey of antimicrobial use across Europe. Drugs. 2011;71(6):745–55.
GDPR. EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR): Regulation (EU) 2016/679 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 April 2016 on the protection of natural persons with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data, and repealing Directive 95/46/EC (General Data Protection Regulation), OJ 2016 L 119/1. 2016.
SWAB (Dutch Working Party on Antibiotic Policy). www.swabid.nl. Accessed June 2018–January 2019.
Donaldson GC, Wedzicha JA. The causes and consequences of seasonal variation in COPD exacerbations. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2014;9:1101–10.
Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guideline. 2018. https://goldcopd.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/WMS-GOLD%2D%2DFeb-Final-to-print-v2.pdf. Accessed June 2018–January 2019.
Versporten A, Zarb P, Caniaux I, Gros MF, Drapier N, Miller M, et al. Antimicrobial consumption and resistance in adult hospital inpatients in 53 countries: results of an internet-based global point prevalence survey. Lancet Glob Health. 2018;6(6):e619–e29.
Bratzler DW, Dellinger EP, Olsen KM, Perl TM, Auwaerter PG, Bolon MK, et al. Clinical practice guidelines for antimicrobial prophylaxis in surgery. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2013;70(3):195–283.
Bernatz JT, Safdar N, Hetzel S, Anderson PA. Antibiotic overuse is a major risk factor for Clostridium difficile infection in surgical patients. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2017;38(10):1254–7.
King LM, Fleming-Dutra KE, Hicks LA. Advances in optimizing the prescription of antibiotics in outpatient settings. BMJ. 2018;363:k3047.
Dobson EL, Klepser ME, Pogue JM, Labreche MJ, Adams AJ, Gauthier TP, et al. Outpatient antibiotic stewardship: Interventions and opportunities. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2007;57(4):464–73.
Durkin MJ, Jafarzadeh SR, Hsueh K, Sallah YH, Munshi KD, Henderson RR, et al. Outpatient antibiotic prescription trends in the United States: a National Cohort Study. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2018;39(5):584–9.
Hurley HJ, Knepper BC, Price CS, Mehler PS, Burman WJ, Jenkins TC. Avoidable antibiotic exposure for uncomplicated skin and soft tissue infections in the ambulatory care setting. Am J Med. 2013;126(12):1099–106.
Walsh TL, Chan L, Konopka CI, Burkitt MJ, Moffa MA, Bremmer DN, et al. Appropriateness of antibiotic management of uncomplicated skin and soft tissue infections in hospitalized adult patients. BMC Infect Dis. 2016;16(1):721.
Al-Taani GM, Scott M, Farren D, Gilmore F, McCullagh B, Hibberd C, et al. Longitudinal point prevalence survey of antibacterial use in Northern Ireland using the European surveillance of antimicrobial consumption (ESAC) PPS and global-PPS tool. Epidemiol Infect. 2018;146(8):985–90.
Aghdassi SJS, Gastmeier P, Piening BC, Behnke M, Pena Diaz LA, Gropmann A, et al. Antimicrobial usage in German acute care hospitals: results of the third national point prevalence survey and comparison with previous national point prevalence surveys. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2018;73(4):1077–83.
Versporten A, Coenen S, Adriaenssens N, Muller A, Minalu G, Faes C, et al. European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption (ESAC): outpatient penicillin use in Europe (1997–2009). J Antimicrob Chemother. 2011;66(Suppl 6):vi13–23.
Ramsey EG, Royer J, Bookstaver PB, Justo JA, Kohn J, Albrecht H, et al. Seasonal variation in antimicrobial resistance rates of community-acquired Escherichia coli bloodstream isolates. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2019;54(1):1–7.
Akhloufi H, Streefkerk RH, Melles DC, de Steenwinkel JE, Schurink CA, Verkooijen RP, et al. Point prevalence of appropriate antimicrobial therapy in a Dutch university hospital. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2015;34(8):1631–7.
Willemsen I, Groenhuijzen A, Bogaers D, Stuurman A, van Keulen P, Kluytmans J. Appropriateness of antimicrobial therapy measured by repeated prevalence surveys. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007;51(3):864–7.
Mimica Matanovic S, Bergman U, Vukovic D, Wettermark B, Vlahovic-Palcevski V. Impact of restricted amoxicillin/clavulanic acid use on Escherichia coli resistance--antibiotic DU90% profiles with bacterial resistance rates: a visual presentation. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2010;36(4):369–7.