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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of pneumonia patients caused by K. pneumoniae

From: Clinical characteristics of patients with pneumonia caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae in Taiwan and prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant and hypervirulent strains: a retrospective study

VariableCAP (n = 68)HCAP (n = 74)HAP (n = 134)p value
CAP vs. HCAPHCAP vs. HAPCAP vs. HAP
Demographics
 Age, (Mean ± SD), years77.13 ± 14.5677.03 ± 13.8574.25 ± 15.430.7360.3020.161
 Gender, male53 (77.9)62 (83.8)102 (76.1)0.3750.1950.772
Days of hospitalization prior to culture, median (IQR), days0.0 (0.0–0.0)0.0 (0.0–0.0)12.0 (5.8–22.3)N/A< 0.001< 0.001
Underlying disease
 Malignancy26 (38.2)32 (43.2)51 (38.1)0.5440.4650.981
 Diabetes mellitus20 (29.4)33 (44.6)51 (38.1)0.0620.3580.224
 Chronic kidney disease45 (66.2)34 (45.9)75 (56.0)0.0150.1660.163
 Hemodialysis0 (0.0)3 (4.1)8 (6.0)0.2460.7500.053
 Congestive heart failure5 (7.4)14 (18.9)26 (19.4)0.0430.9320.025
 Liver cirrhosis4 (5.9)2 (2.7)8 (6.0)0.4260.5001.000
 Cerebral vascular disease12 (17.6)24 (32.4)31 (23.1)0.0430.1450.368
 Chronic obstructive lung disease10 (14.7)14 (18.9)16 (11.9)0.5030.1700.579
 Collagen vascular disease0 (0.0)2 (2.7)10 (7.5)0.4970.2200.018
 Transplantation1 (1.5)1 (1.4)3 (2.2)1.0001.0001.000
 Immunosuppressiona2 (2.9)19 (25.7)45 (33.6)< 0.0010.237< 0.001
Invasive procedures and devices at onset of pneumonia37 (54.4)58 (78.4)118 (88.1)0.0020.064< 0.001
 Central venous catheter4 (5.9)12 (16.2)49 (36.6)0.0650.002< 0.001
 Nasogastric/Nasojejunal tube26 (38.2)43 (58.1)95 (70.9)0.0180.062< 0.001
 Urinary catheter18 (26.5)28 (37.8)79 (59.0)0.1480.004< 0.001
 Endotracheal tubeb1 (1.5)0 (0.0)39 (29.1)0.479< 0.001< 0.001
 Tracheostomy0 (0.0)3 (4.1)8 (6.0)0.2460.7500.053
 Surgical drainage0 (0.0)1 (1.4)18 (13.4)1.0000.002< 0.001
Surgery within 2 weeks1 (1.5)2 (2.7)33 (24.6)1.000< 0.001< 0.001
Prior antibiotic exposure
 Any antibiotic0 (0.0)22 (29.7)103 (76.9)< 0.001< 0.001< 0.001
 1st or 2nd generation cephalosporinc0 (0.0)7 (9.5)36 (26.9)0.0140.003< 0.001
 3rd or 4th generation cephalosporind0 (0.0)3 (4.1)24 (17.9)0.2460.004< 0.001
 β-lactam and β-lactamase inhibitore0 (0.0)15 (20.3)59 (44.0)< 0.0010.001< 0.001
 Carbapenemf0 (0.0)4 (5.4)16 (11.9)0.1210.1470.002
 Fluoroquinoloneg0 (0.0)1 (1.4)19 (14.2)1.0000.002< 0.001
 Aminoglycosideh0 (0.0)1 (1.4)3 (2.2)1.0001.0000.552
 Tigecycline0 (0.0)2 (2.7)9 (6.7)0.4970.3340.030
 Glycopeptidei0 (0.0)3 (4.1)24 (17.9)0.2460.004< 0.001
 Metronidazole0 (0.0)1 (1.4)3 (2.2)1.0001.0000.552
SOFA score, median (IQR)6.0 (4.0–10.8)7.5 (5.0–10.0)6.5 (4.0–10.0)0.1140.0830.835
APACHE II score, median (IQR)18.0 (12.0–23.0)23.0 (13.0–26.3)20.0 (16.0–25.0)0.0030.1630.020
  1. Data are presented as number (%) of patients, unless stated otherwise
  2. SD standard deviation, IQR interquartile range, PSI Pneumonia Severity Index, APACHE Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation, N/A not applicable
  3. aImmunosuppression was defined as meeting one of the following criteria: neutropenia, use of corticosteroids, or receiving chemotherapy
  4. bEndotracheal tube was defined as patient being intubated at the onset of bacteremia
  5. cIncluding cefazolin and cefuroxime
  6. dIncluding cefoperazone, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, cefepime, and cefpirome
  7. eIncluding amoxicillin/clavulanate, ampicillin/sulbactam, piperacillin/tazobactam, and ticarcillin/clavulanate
  8. fIncluding ertapenem, imipenem, meropenem, and doripenem
  9. gIncluding ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, and moxifloxacin
  10. hIncluding amikacin, gentamicin and isepamicin
  11. iIncluding vancomycin and teicoplanin
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