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Table 1 Hospitals, wards, and patients with linezolid use. Data from the national point prevalence surveys 2011 and 2016. Data comparison of the two surveys

From: Linezolid use in German acute care hospitals: results from two consecutive national point prevalence surveys

Parameter Group Variable Number (percentage) or Median (IQR) p-value
Total PPS 2011 With linezolid use PPS 2011 Total PPS 2016 With linezolid use PPS 2016
Participating hospitals Total   132 (100) 49 (37.1) 218 (100) 95 (43.6) 0.24
Number of hospital beds Median (IQR) 359 (182–607)* 607 (410–822)** 305 (186–548)* 519 (310–728)** 0.17*; 0.04**
Prevalence of patients with antimicrobial use Median (IQR) 25.1 (19.2–31.2)* 29.5 (25.2–31.9)** 26.2 (19.5–30.5)* 28.7 (20.9–32.9)** 0.67*; 0.59**
Hospital type Primary care 71 (100) 13 (18.3) 118 (100) 29 (24.6) 0.32
Secondary care 28 (100) 18 (64.3) 41 (100) 28 (68.3) 0.73
Tertiary care 22 (100) 15 (68.2) 36 (100) 30 (83.3) 0.20
Specialized hospital 10 (100) 2 (20) 23 (100) 8 (34.8) 0.44
Other/Unknown 1 (100) 1 (100) 0 (0) 0 (n.a.) n.a.
Hospital ownership Public n.a. n.a. 103 (100) 57 (55.3) n.a.
Private, not for profit n.a. n.a. 63 (100) 18 (28.6) n.a.
Private, for profit n.a. n.a. 31 (100) 11 (35.5) n.a.
Other/Unknown n.a. n.a. 21 (100) 9 (42.9) n.a.
Participating wards Total   2142 (100) 98 (4.6) 3182 (100) 212 (6.7) < 0.01
Number of ward beds Median (IQR) 25 (18–34)* 20 (12–33)** 26 (18–34)* 24 (16–34)** 0.01*; 0.08**
Prevalence of patients with antimicrobial use Median (IQR) 23.1 (10.0–39.3)* 53.5 (33.3–72.9)** 25.0 (11.5–40.0)* 45.0 (33.3–63.6)** 0.04*; 0.05**
Percentage of antimicrobials with reason in notes Median (IQR) 100 (50.0–100)* 95.3 (60.0–100)** 83.3 (44.4–100)* 82.5 (33.8–100)** < 0.01*; 0.01**
Percentage of linezolid among all antimicrobials Median (IQR) 0 (0–0)* 9.5 (6.5–13.6)** 0 (0–0)* 9.1 (6.7–14.3)** < 0.01*; 0.82**
Ward specialty Medical (incl. Geriatrics, neurology) 656 (100) 25 (3.8) 1034 (100) 50 (4.8) 0.32
Surgical (incl. G/O, urology, ENT) 711 (100) 24 (3.4) 952 (100) 60 (6.3) < 0.01
ICU 201 (100) 40 (20.0) 346 (100) 79 (22.8) 0.43
Other/Not specified 545 (100) 9 (1.7) 850 (100) 23 (2.7) 0.20
Region West 597 (100) 16 (2.7) 927 (100) 54 (5.8) < 0.01
North 349 (100) 22 (6.3) 312 (100) 19 (6.1) 0.91
Southwest 404 (100) 18 (4.5) 813 (100) 57 (7.0) 0.08
Southeast 250 (100) 17 (6.8) 420 (100) 33 (7.9) 0.62
East 542 (100) 25 (4.6) 710 (100) 49 (6.9) 0.09
Included patients Total   41,539 (100) 119 (0.3) 64,412 (100) 255 (0.4) < 0.01
  Patient specialty Medical (incl. Geriatrics, neurology) 16,276 (100) 37 (0.2) 27,704 (100) 64 (0.2) 0.95
  Surgical (incl. G/O, urology, ENT) 16,828 (100) 39 (0.2) 25,656 (100) 119 (0.5) < 0.01
  Intensive care 1652 (100) 40 (2.4) 2674 (100) 65 (2.4) 0.99
  Other/Not specified 6783 (100) 3 (0.0) 8378 (100) 7 (0.1) 0.37
  1. Where more than one p-value per row is given, asterisks are used to indicate the corresponding datasets. P-values for variables where median and interquartile range are stated, were calculated with Mann–Whitney U test. P-values for variables where number and percentage are stated, were calculated with Chi-squared test. Bold print is used to indicate statistical significance. Abbreviations: IQR interquartile range, PPS point prevalence survey, West North Rhine-Westphalia, North Bremen, Hamburg, Lower Saxony, Mecklenburg-West Pomerania, Schleswig-Holstein; Southwest Baden-Württemberg, Saarland, Rhineland-Palatinate; Southeast Bavaria, Hesse; East Berlin, Brandenburg, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia; n.a. not available/not applicable, FTE full-time equivalent, G/O gynecology and obstetrics, ENT otolaryngology, ICU intensive care unit