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Table 3 Tests for significance of differences across the study period in MDRO infection incidence density (MDRO), hand hygiene compliance, and alcohol-based hand rub usage (AHRU), respectively, within and across trial arms (hand hygiene compliance data are from [15] and reprinted with permission)

From: Impact of psychologically tailored hand hygiene interventions on nosocomial infections with multidrug-resistant organisms: results of the cluster-randomized controlled trial PSYGIENE

  ASH-trial arm Tailoring-trial arm Comparison of trial arms
a) MDRO Difference 95%-CI p-value Difference 95%-CI p-value F p-value
 2014 vs. 2013 -0.086 i. per 1 k inpatient days [-0.629; 0.456] p = 0.730 -0.260 i. per 1 k inpatient days [-0.803; 0.282] p = 0.310 0.255 p = 0.625
 2015 vs. 2014 0.064 i. per 1 k inpatient days [-0.355; 0.483] p = 0.739 -0.237 i. per 1 k inpatient days [-0.656; 0.182] p = 0.236 1.285 p = 0.283
 2015 vs. 2013 -0.022 i. per 1 k inpatient days [-0.400; 0.356] p = 0.899 -0.497 i. per 1 k inpatient days [-0.857; -0.119] p = 0.015 3.927 p = 0.076
b) Hand hygiene compliance Difference 95%-CI p-value Difference 95%-CI p-value Chi 2 p-value
 2014 vs. 2013 +13% [9.8; 16.1] p < 0.001 +10% [6.3; 12.6] p < 0.001 2.3 p = 0.126
 2015 vs. 2014 -4% [-7.7; -1.2] p = 0.007 +6% [2.5; 9.3] p = 0.001 18.5 p < 0.001
 2015 vs. 2013 +9% [5.1; 11.8] p < 0.001 +16% [11.9; 18.9] p < 0.001 7.9 p = 0.005
c) AHRU Difference 95%-CI p-value Difference 95%-CI p-value F p-value
 2014 vs. 2013 +20 ml per inpatient day [-12.2; 51.4] p = 0.199 +3 ml per inpatient day [-29.7; 34.0] p = 0.883 0.8 p = 0.407
 2015 vs. 2014 +6 ml per inpatient day [-10.2; 23.7] p = 0.397 -2 ml per inpatient day [-18.7; 15.2] p = 0.827 0.6 p = 0.452
 2015 vs. 2013 +26 ml per inpatient day [-1.1; 53.8] p = 0.058 +1 ml per inpatient day [-27.0; 27.9] p = 0.972 2.2 p = 0.168
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