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Table 2 Study characteristics, graded by risk-of-bias tool with highest quality studies reported at the top of table. 2012–2016

From: Using the best available data to estimate the cost of antimicrobial resistance: a systematic review

Author (year)
Country
Year of data used
Organism
Site of infection
Comparator (n) Adjustment for prior LOS or time dependence Adjustment for disease severity Adjustment for inappropriate antibiotic use
Stewardson (2016)
10 EU countries
2010–2011 [24]
Enterobacteriaceae S. auerus
BSI
MSSA (885)
MRSA(163)
3GCSE(2100)
3GCRE (360)
Fully adjusted for at the analysis stage using multi-state modelling Comorbid conditionscalculated and adjusted in model No
Stewardson (2013)
Switzerland
2009 [25]
Enterobacteriaceae BSI Non-ESBL (96)
ESBL+ (30)
Fully adjusted for at the analysis stage using multi-state modelling Data collected but not adjusted in model Uncertain if adjusted in model
Neidell (2012)
USA
2006–2008 [26]
S. aureus, Enterococcus, KP, PA
BSI, UTI, Lower RTI
Susceptible (3880)
Resistant (1819)
Partially adjusted for at the analysis stage using nearest neighbour matching, based on propensity scores for prior LOS CCI calculated; individual comorbidities adjusted in model No
Campbell (2013)
USA
2005–2010 [33]
S. aureus
Multiple sitesa
MSSA (206)
MRSA (119)
Partially adjusted for at the analysis stage by adjusting for time to infection as baseline covariate. In sensitivity analysis matching based on propensity scores for time to infection CCI calculated and adjusted in model No
Leistner (2014)
Germany 2008–2010 [29]
E. coli
BSI
Non-ESBL (92)
ESBL+ (92)
Partially adjusted for at the design stage using matching (LOS of controls matched with LOS of cases) Matched on CCI No
Cheah (2013)
Australia
2002–2010 [31]
Enterococcus
BSI
VSE (603)
VRE (116)
Partially adjusted at the analysis stage using LOS prior to infection CCI calculated and adjusted in model Yes
Morales (2012)
Spain
2005–2006 [27]
P. aeruginosa
Multipleb
Susceptible (149)
Resistant (119)
MDR (134)
Not addressed No No
Maslikowska (2016)
Canada
2010–2013 [28]
E. coli
Klebsiella spp.
Multiple c
Non-ESBL (75)
ESBL+ (75)
Not addressed No No
Thampi (2015)
Canada
2007–2010 [20]
S. aureus
BSI
MSSA (377)
MRSA (58)
Not addressed No No
EstevePalau (2015)
Spain
2010–2013 [30]
E. coli
UTI
Non-ESBL (60)
ESBL+ (60)
Not addressed No No
MacVane (2014)
USA
2011–2012 [23]
E. coli
Klebsiella spp.
UTI
Non-ESBL(55)
ESBL+ (55)
Not addressed No No
Chandy (2014)
India
2010 [32]
All organisms
BSI suspected
Susceptible (87)
Resistant (133)
Not addressed No No
  1. BSI Bloodstream infection, UTI Urinary tract infection, RTI Respiratory tract infection, 3GC Third-generation cephalosporin, 3GCSE 3GC susceptible Enterobacteriaceae, 3GCRE 3GC resistant Enterobacteriaceae, ESBL Extended-spectrum beta lactamase, VSE Vancomycin susceptible Enterococcus, VRE Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus, MRSA Methicillin resistant S. aureus, MSSA Methicillin susceptible S.aureus, KP K. pneumoniae, PA P. aeruginosa, MDR Multidrug resistant, CCI Charlson comborbidity index, APACHE Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation, DRG Disease-related group, NS Not significant
  2. amultiple sites of infections were, as listed by authors, “blood, urine, respiratory, neurologic, orthopaedic, other”
  3. bRespiratory, SST, genitourinary, catheter, endovascular, abscess, peritonitis, digestive, as found in original article
  4. cmultiple sites of infection are summarised here as orthopaedic, lung, blood, urinary tract, abdominal region, and skin and soft tissue infections