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Table 2 Demographics and clinical characteristics of cases and controls

From: Using local clinical and microbiological data to develop an institution specific carbapenem-sparing strategy in sepsis: a nested case-control study

Characteristic Cases n (%) Controls n (%) P Value OR (95% CI)
Patient demographics
 Male gender 45 (63.4) 80 (56.3) .38 1.34 (0.75–2.41)
 Age > 65 32 (43.7) 73 (51.4) .31 0.77 (0.44–1.38)
Medical history
 Diabetes mellitus 19 (26.8) 50 (35.2) .28 0.67 (0.36–1.26)
 Corticosteroid therapy (prior 6 months) 32 (45.1) 47 (33.1) .10 1.66 (0.93–2.97)
 Neutropenia 14 (19.7) 9 (6.3) .005 3.62 (1.49–8.87)
 Solid organ transplantation 14 (19.7) 23 (16.2) .57 1.27 (0.61–2.65)
 Hematologic malignancy 18 (25.4) 9 (6.3) <.001 5.01 (2.12–11.87)
 Non-hematologic malignancy 12 (16.9) 33 (23.2) .37 0.67 (0.32–1.40)
 Chronic urologic disorder 13 (18.3) 33 (23.2) .48 0.74 (0.36–1.52)
 Chronic pulmonary disease 7 (9.9) 19 (13.4) .51 0.71 (0.28–1.77)
 Recurrent urinary tract infections 7 (9.9) 14 (9.9) 1.00 1.00 (0.38–2.60)
Clinical presentation
 Fever (temperature > 38.5 °C) 49 (69.0) 104 (73.2) .31 0.81 (0.43–1.53)
 EMV-score < 15 21 (30.6) 29 (20.4) .23 1.57 (0.81–3.02)
 Hypotensiona 18 (25.4) 23 (16.2) .14 1.79 (0.89–3.63)
Current antibiotic useb 49 (69.0) 37 (26.1) <.001 6.32 (3.38–11.84)
Antibiotic usage preceding 2 months 67 (94.4) 67 (47.2) <.001 18.75 (6.49–54.19)
ICU/MCU > 2 days 11 (15.5) 7 (4.9) .02 3.54 (1.31–9.57)
ICU/MC preceding 6 months 23 (32.4) 16 (11.3) <.001 3.77 (1.84–7.75)
Hospital stay preceding 6 months 49 (69.0) 65 (45.8) .001 2.64 (1.45–4.82)
Hospitalization > 5 days 32 (45.1) 28 (19.7) <.001 3.34 (1.79–6.24)
Prior-DRPc 42 (59.2) 27 (19.0) <.001 6.17 (3.28–11.61)
Source of infection    .06
 Urinary tract 23 (32.4) 68 (47.9)   
 Intra-abdominal tract 22 (31.0) 44 (31.0)   
 Respiratory tract 3 (4.3) 9 (6.4)   
 Skin/soft tissue 6 (8.6) 4 (2.8)   
 Other 7 (9.9) 7 (4.9)   
 Unidentified 10 (14.1) 10 (7.0)   
  1. Data are presented as No. (%). P values are calculated by Fisher exact test, p-value for ‘source of infection’ was calculated by chi-square test. Abbreviations: OR = odds ratio, EMV-score: eye-motor-verbal score. ICU/MCU = intensive care unit / medium care unit. IQR = interquartile range. A Hypotension = systolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg or requirement for intravenous vasopressor agents. B ‘Current antibiotic use’ = at least one administration of antibiotics during the 24 h preceding the collection of blood specimens. c ‘Prior-DRP’ = one of the following drug resistant pathogens isolated from any body site: Vancomycin resistant enterococci, multi resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacteriaceae with in vitro resistance to aminoglycosides, second and/or third generation cephalosporin’s (including ESBL positive Enterobacteriaceae) and/or quinolones, Pseudomonas aeruginosa with resistance to third generation cephalosporins, aminoglycosides or quinolones.
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