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Table 1 Patients’ epidemiological characteristics and univariate analysis of multidrug-resistance in gram-negative bacteria

From: Predictive factors for multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria among hospitalised patients with complicated urinary tract infections

  Entire Cohort
(n = 948)
Susceptible
(n = 691)
MDR
(n = 257)
p-Value
Male gender, n (%) 420 (44.3) 270 (39.1) 150 (58.4) < 0.001
Mean age (SD), years 65.8 (18.2) 65.6 (18.6) 66.5 (16.8) 0.526
Elective admission, n (%) 141 (14.9) 97 (14) 44 (17.1) 0.236
Admission reason: conditions other than cUTI, n (%) 326 (34.4) 214 (31) 112 (43.6) < 0.001
Place of residency: long-term care facility, n (%) 165 (17.4) 98 (14.2) 67 (26.1) < 0.001
Underlying disease, n (%)
 Acute myocardial infarction 79 (8.3) 56 (8.1) 23 (8.9) 0.676
 Congestive heart failure 182 (19.2) 134 (19.4) 48 (18.7%) 0.804
 Peripheral vascular disease 70 (7.4) 55 (8) 15 (5.8) 0.267
 Cerebrovascular disease 182 (19.2) 122 (17.7) 60 (23.3) 0.048
 Dementia 130 (13.7) 93 (13.5) 37 (14.4) 0.709
 Chronic pulmonary disease 135 (14.2) 91 (13.2) 44 (17.1) 0.122
 Connective tissue disease 21 (2.2) 15 (2.2) 6 (2.3) 0.879
 Peptic ulcer 46 (4.9) 34 (4.9) 12 (4.7) 0.873
 Diabetes mellitus 250 (26.4) 186 (26.9) 64 (24.9) 0.531
 Chronic kidney disease 263 (27.7) 191 (27.6) 72 (28) 0.909
 Hemiplegia 86 (9.1) 58 (8.4) 28 (10.9) 0.233
 Leukaemia 9 (0.9) 6 (0.9) 3 (1.2) 0.673
 Lymphoma 13 (1.4) 11 (1.6) 2 (0.8) 0.338
 Chronic liver disease 50 (5.3) 35 (5.1) 15 (5.8) 0.637
 Solid tumour 114 (12.3) 75 (11.1) 39 (15.4) 0.075
 Metastatic tumour 47 (5) 35 (5.1) 12 (4.7) 0.803
 Valvulopathy 88 (9.3) 69 (10) 19 (7.4) 0.221
 HIV infection 10 (1.1) 8 (1.2) 2 (0.8) 0.611
Charlson index ≥ 3, n (%) 418 (44.1) 299 (43.3) 119 (46.3) 0.403
Organ transplant, n (%) 65 (6.9) 45 (6.5) 20 (7.8) 0.492
Immunosuppression, n (%) 94 (9.9) 64 (9.3) 30 (11.7) 0.270
Steroids, n (%) 68 (7.2) 46 (6.7) 22 (8.6) 0.313
Functional capacity: dependent, n (%) 436 (46.1) 298 (43.3%) 138 (53.9) 0.003
Prior UTI (within the previous year), n (%) 247 (26.1) 167 (24.2) 80 (31.2) 0.027
Prior antibiotics (within the previous 30 days), n (%) 190 (20.1) 120 (17.4) 70 (27.6) 0.001
 Prior quinolone 64 (6.8) 38 (5.5) 26 (10.2) 0.010
 Prior Penicillin 55 (5.8) 35 (5.1) 20 (7.9) 0.103
 Prior cephalosporin 42 (4.4) 27 (3.9) 15 (5.9) 0.188
 Prior Carbapenem 22 (2.3) 10 (1.4) 12 (4.7) 0.003
 Prior other antibiotics 51 (5.4) 31 (4.5) 20 (7.9) 0.042
Acquisition in a medical care facility, n (%) 410 (43.2) 244 (35.3) 166 (64.6) < 0.001
Source of cUTI, n (%)
 Indwelling urinary catheterisation 308 (32.5) 189 (27.4) 119 (46.3) < 0.001
 Pyelonephritis with normal tract anatomy 196 (20.7) 164 (23.7) 32 (12.5) < 0.001
 Obstructive uropathy 152 (16) 114 (16.5) 38 (14.8) 0.523
 Urinary tract diversion 84 (8.9) 64 (9.3) 20 (7.8) 0.476
 Other 208 (21.9) 160 (23.2) 48 (18.7) 0.139
Shock/severe sepsis, n (%) 140 (15.9) 104 (16.2) 36 (14.9) 0.635
  1. MDR multidrug resistance, SD standard deviation, cUTI complicated urinary tract infection, HIV human immunodeficiency virus, UTI urinary tract infection