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Table 2 Multivariate logistic regression models clustered on hospitals presenting independent factors associated with urinary tract infection stratified on prior exposure to urinary catheter, Swiss-NOSO Nationwide Prevalence Study, 2004

From: High proportion of healthcare-associated urinary tract infection in the absence of prior exposure to urinary catheter: a cross-sectional study

Variables Prior exposure to urinary catheter No prior exposure to urinary catheter
(n = 1917) (n = 5957)
Odds ratio 95% CI P value OR 95% CI P value
Age groups (%)    0.62    0.03*
 <40 years 1.00 - - 1.00 - -
 41-70 years 1.77 0.51-6.10 0.36 1.03 0.31-3.45 0.96
 > = 71 years 1.84 0.54-6.26 0.33 2.53 0.81-7.94 0.11
Recent surgical intervention    0.75    0.59
 No 1.00 -   1.00 -  
 Yes 0.92 0.54-1.56   0.84 0.44-1.59  
 ASA score (%)    0.09*    0.39
 1 pt 1.00 - - 1.00 - -
 2-3 pts 7.21 0.96-54.35 0.06 1.99 0.54-7.28 0.30
 4-5 pts 4.52 0.51-39.74 0.17 1.11 0.18-6.78 0.91
Charlson group    0.55    0.76
 0-3 pts 1.00 -   1.00 -  
 > = 4 pts 1.30 0.55-3.08   0.85 0.30-2.40  
Length of stay    0.01*    0.09*
 <20 days 1.00 - - 1.00 - -
 21-40 days 1.88 0.92-3.85 0.08 2.01 0.95-4.22 0.07
 > = 41 days 2.87 1.34-6.11 0.006 2.12 0.84-5.35 0.11
Recent stay in intensive care    0.99    0.05*
 No 1.00 -   1.00 -  
 Yes 1.00 0.58-1.73   2.30 1.01-5.20  
McCabe/Jackson (%)    0.95    0.18
 Non fatal 1.00 - - 1.00 - -
 Fatal within 5 years 0.98 0.54-1.77 0.95 1.71 0.88-3.31 0.11
 Fatal within 6 months 1.15 0.45-2.93 0.76 0.50 0.06-3.87 0.50
Gender    0.06*    0.001*
 Male 1.00 -   1.00 -  
 Female 1.61 0.98-2.65   3.27 1.65-6.48  
Hemiplegia    0.78    0.03*
 No 1.00 -   1.00 -  
 Yes 1.10 0.55-2.20   2.10 1.07-4.11  
Immune suppression°    0.67    0.45
 No 1.00 -   1.00 -  
 Yes 1.18 0.54-2.58   1.42 0.57-3.51  
  1. *Independent variables significantly (or slightly significantly) associated with urinary tract infection.
  2. ASA = American Society of Anesthesiologists; autoimmune disease, transplantation, hepatopathy, nephropathy, neoplasia.
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