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Table 1 Patient characteristics according to the presence of healthcare-associated urinary tract infection (UTI) (n = 8169), Swiss-NOSO Nationwide Prevalence Study, 2004

From: High proportion of healthcare-associated urinary tract infection in the absence of prior exposure to urinary catheter: a cross-sectional study

  UTI No UTI P value
  (n = 126) (n = 8043)  
Urinary catheter exposure (%)    <0.001
 Yes 73 (57.9) 1912 (23.8)  
 No 53 (42.1) 6131 (76.2)  
Gender, female (%) 85 (67.5) 4228 (52.6) 0.001
Mean age (±SD) 71.8 (15.6) 62.4 (19.0) <0.001
Age groups (%)    <0.001
 <40 years 7 (5.7) 1395 (17.9)  
 41-70 years 37 (30.3) 3208 (41.2)  
 > = 71 years 78 (63.9) 3184 (40.9)  
Hospital size    0.09
 <200 acute care beds 23 (18.3) 1994 (24.8)  
 200-500 beds 40 (31.8) 2748 (34.2)  
 > = 501 beds 63 (50.0) 3301 (41.0)  
Mean length of stay (±SD) 20.5(22.2) 11.4 (41.0) <0.001*
Length of stay    <0.001
 <20 days 89 (70.6) 6990 (86.9)  
 21-40 days 22 (17.5) 677 (8.4)  
 > = 41 days 15 (11.9) 374 (4.7)  
Recent stay in intensive care (%) 34 (27.0) 1030 (12.8) <0.001
Hospitalisation ward (%)    0.003*
 Medical ward 45 (35.7) 3192 (39.7)  
 Surgical ward 50 (39.7) 3219 (40.0)  
 Gynaecology/obstetrics 5 (4.0) 778 (9.7)  
 Intensive care unit 7 (5.6) 285 (3.5)  
 Medico-surgical 19 (15.1) 569 (7.1)  
Recent surgery (%) 61 (48.4) 3292 (40.9) 0.09
Mean ASA score (±SD) 2.81 (0.67) 2.33 (0.89) <0.001*
ASA (%)    <0.001*
 1 pt 4 (3.2) 1587 (19.8)  
 2-3 pts 109 (87.2) 5802 (72.3)  
 4-5 pts 12 (9.6) 634 (7.9)  
McCabe/Jackson (%)    0.01*
 Non fatal 82 (65.1) 6143 (76.4)  
 Fatal within 5 years 36 (28.6) 1455 (18.1)  
 Fatal within 6 months 8 (6.4) 445 (5.5)  
Mean nursing workload (±SD) 204.0 (161.4) 168.3 (162.8) 0.008*
Mean Charlson index (±SD) 1.8 (2.1) 1.2 (1.8) <0.001*
Charlson group (%)    0.02
 0-3 pts 106 (84.1) 7267 (90.4)  
 > = 4 pts 20 (15.9) 776 (9.7)  
Co-morbidities (%)    
 Diabetes mellitus 19 (15.1) 1074 (13.4) 0.57
 Immune suppression° 26 (20.6) 1047 (13.0) 0.01
 Hemiplegia 24 (19.1) 777 (9.7) <0.001
 Dementia 9 (7.1) 290 (3.6) 0.04
  1. ASA, American Society of Anesthesiologists; (%) = proportion of all surveyed patients according to number of the variable of interest among the study population; SD = standard deviation; °autoimmune disease, transplantation, hepatopathy, nephropathy, neoplasia.
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